The short chronology of Latvian history.
9000. BC- first human settlers enters Latvia’s territory.
9000.-2000. BC- Stone Age
2000.-1000. BC- Early metal’s age
1000.-1200. AC- Iron Age
3000 B.C The territory around the Baltic Sea is inhabited by Finno-Ugric people the ancestors of Finns, Estonians and Livonians.
2000 BC First Baltic peoples enter the territory of Latvia
9.-10. century- Viking raids in Latvian territory
1270ies- German merchants are making first trips to the creek of Daugava.
Somewhere around 1184. -German monk Meinard starts his mission in Livonian land.
1198. German crusaders fight battle with Livonians. Bishop Berthold dies in battle.
1199.-1229. The reign of Bishop Albert. German crusaders conquers Latvian land.
1201. Bishop Alberts founds Riga as the new base for crusaders.
1209. Latgalian ruler Visvaldis of Jersika surrenders to crusaders.
1210.- Curonians attack Riga with battleships.
1236.- Lithuanians and Semigallians defeats the crusaders at the battle of Saule. The crusader order of The Brothers of Sword perishes in battle. The new Livonian Order is formed as an integral part of Teutonic order.
1260. -Curonians and Samogotians defeats crusaders at the battle of Durbe.
1287.- Semigallians are victorious at the battle of Garoza (near Jelgava)
14.-15. century- The Reign of Livonian Confederation. Conflicts between Livonian rulers and wars with Lithuanians.
1330.- Livonian Order captures Riga taking full power over city.
1419. The Livonian Lantag is gathered. The first representative assembly of landlords and city rulers.
1491.-1535. The reign of the Master of the Livonian Order Valter fon Pletenberg.
1503. The peace deal with Russia secures the Livonian peace for many decades.
1620ties- The time of Reformation. Lutheranism becomes the main confession.
1558.-1583.- Livonian War. Russia, Sweden and Poland-Lithuania battles for Livonian land.
1561. -North Estonia gained by Sweden. Episcopacy’s of Saaremaa and Curland ceded to Danemark. The rest of Livonia given to Poland-Lithuania. The founding of Duchy of Courland and Semigallia.
1577. - Ivan IV the Terrible army destroys Cesis and rest of Vidzeme.
1584.-1589. The calendar revolt in Riga against the Polish government.
1585.- first book in Latvian by P. Canisius- the Lutheran catechism.
1600.-1629. - The War between Poles and Swedes.
1629. – truce between Poles and Swedes. Vidzeme becomes divided between Poland-Lithaunia and Sweden.
1632. – The foundation of University of Terbata (Tartu). The first university in Baltic Region.
1642.-1682.- The reign of Duke Jekabs of the Duchy of Curland and Semigallia.
1685. – first translation of Bible in Latvian by Ernests Gliks.
1700.-1721. – Great Northern War.
1721.- The peace between Sweden and Russia. Vidzeme becomes part of Russian Empire.
1772.- Latgalia becomes part of Russia.
1775. -The Academy of Peter is founded in Jelgava.
1795.- The last Duke of Curland Peter Biron steps down; Curland and Semigallia becomes a part of Russia.
1796.- Garibl Merkelis releases his influential work The Latvians.
1802.- Kauguri peasants revolt.
1812.- Napoleon’s army enters Latvia.
1822.- The first Latvian newspaper “The Latvian newspapers” is published.
1841.-1848.- Peasant revolts in Vidzeme. Massive conversion to Orthodox church and emigration to Russia.
19. century 50ies-70ies- The emerging of intellectual new Latvians movement. The beginning of Latvian nationalism.
1868.- The foundation of Riga Latvian Society.
1873.- First Song and Dance festival.
19. century 90ies- The New Current movement brings Marxism to Latvia.
1905. - Revolution takes place in Latvia.
1914.-1918.- First World War.
The summer of 1915.- The formation of Latvian Rifleman battalions to fight German army.
The end of 1916.- Christmas’s battles.
1917.-1918.- Revolution in Russia. German army occupies Latvia completely.
1918. 18. November- The proclamation of the Republic of Latvia.
1918.December-1920. January- Latvian Soviet government lead by Peteris Stučka operates in various places in Latvia.
1918.-1920.-The War for Freedom.
1919.- University of Latvia is founded.
1919. June- Estonian-Latvian forces defeat German Iron Division.
1919. 11. November- Latvian army victorious over the Russian-German Bermont army.
1920. 11. August.- Latvian- Soviet peace treaty.
1920.1. may- The first Latvian parliament starts work.
1922. -Latvian constitution the Satversme is ratified. The Saeima starts work.
1921. -Latvia is officially recognized by worlds elite nations.
1930.- Worlds economic crisis hits Latvia.
1934. 15. may.- Karlis Ulmanis takes power with coup and stops work of Saeima and Satversme.
1939. 23. august- Nazi Germany and Soviet Union signs non-aggression pact. Latvia becomes a sphere of interest for Soviet Union.
1939. – Soviet Union forces Latvia to sign Support agreement which permits making Soviet war bases in Latvian territory.
1940. 17. June- Soviet Army enters Latvia and occupies the Latvia completely. The legal Karlis Ulmanis government is arrested. The new communist government is formed and Latvia is annexed by the Soviet Union in august.
1941. 14. July.- Thousands of Latvian people deported to Siberia.
1941. 22. July- Nazi Germany attacks Soviet Union and occupies Latvia.
1941.-1942.- Massive extermination of Jews, Gypsies and mentally ill patients by Nazi’s.
1943.- By Hitler’s orders the formation of Latvian Waffen-SS legion begins.
1944.-1945.- Soviet Army enters Latvia. The bitter battles takes place at Courland
1945.-1991. Latvia is part of Soviet Union as the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic.
1945-1956 Armed Latvian National partisan resistance against the Soviet Regime takes place many parts of Latvia.
1949. 25. March - Mass deportation to Siberia.
1950ies-1960ies.- The movement of National communists.
1986. New Soviet leader M. Gorbachev declares new changes in Soviet policy. The beginning of perestroika and glastnostj.
1988. The Latvian National Movement starts asking for independence.
1988. The Leading national movement for independence the Latvian Peoples Front starts action
1989. 23. august- The Baltic Way takes place in both three Baltic States as a commemoration demonstration to Molotov- Ribentrop pact.
1990. 4. may- The Declaration of Independence is signed pawing way to complete independence.
1991. January- Soviet government tries to avert nationalist movement; barricades are set in Old Riga to protect Latvian government. Numerous shootings takes place at the center of Riga, the Soviets fail to quell national movement.
1991. 21. August- Following the failure of the communist coup in Moscow, Latvia restores full independence.
1991. November- Soviet Union collapses and Russian Federation recognizes Latvia as sovereign state.
1994. Russia removes all armed forces from Latvia.
1995. Bank crisis causes economic instability.
1999. Vaira Vīķe- Freiberga is elected as the first woman president.
2004. Latvia becomes part of European Union and NATO.
2008. World economic crisis hits Latvia.
2009. January- Economical instability causes violent anti government riots in Old Riga.
2009. June Pro-Russian party Harmony Center secures win in Riga municipal elections. Nils Ušakovs becomes the first Russian to be Major of Riga.
2009. August- Protests against government anti-crisis policy deepens as Riot police uses force to evict peaceful protest against closure of hospital in town of Bauska.
2011. The President of Latvia Valdis Zatlers dissolves the parliament and calls for emergency elections. Few days later he himself looses the president seat by not being elected for the second therm by the parliament that he dissolved. The new president Andris Bērziņš replaces him.
2011. The Pro-Russian party “Harmony Center” wins the elections but fails to enter the leading coalition.
2012. The referendum for Russian as the second official language takes place. Majority of voters turns down the two language solution.
2013. The Latvian government officially applies for joining Eurozone. The currency change is planned for 2014.